The Remedial Education program is an instructional program designed for students in grade 1-5 and 6-12 who have identified deficiencies in reading, writing, and maths. This program provides individualized basic skills instruction in the areas of reading, mathematics, and writing
What is Remedial Education and why are these Program in Demand?
In simple terms, a remedial program is for students who have average or higher intellectual abilities but who are not performing well in school. Typically, remedial students are not struggling because of their intellectual abilities but instead because they are struggling with one subject area like reading, writing or mathematics. Remedial program are designed to help give the students the individual attention that they need to build their skills and their confidence so that they can live up to their potential.
What is Dyslexia?
In a person with dyslexia, the brain processes written material differently. This makes it hard to recognize, spell, and decode words. People with dyslexia have problems understanding what they read. Dyslexia is a neurological and often genetic condition, and not the result of poor teaching, instruction, or upbringing. Between 5 and 15 percent of people in the United States have dyslexia.
Dyslexia commonly causes difficulties in word recognition, spelling, and decoding.
Dyslexia is different from delayed reading development, which may reflect mental disability or cultural deprivation. The most common signs and symptoms associated with dyslexia can be displayed at any age, but they normally present in childhood.
Childhood symptoms of Dyslexia include:
Difficulty in learning to read
Many children with dyslexia have normal intelligence and receive proper teaching and parental support, but they have difficulty learning to read.
Milestones reached later
Children with dyslexia may learn to crawl, walk, talk, and ride a bicycle later than the majority of others.
Delayed speech development
A child with dyslexia may take longer to learn to speak, and they may mispronounce words, find rhyming challenging, and appear not to distinguish between different word sounds.
Slow at learning sets of data
At school, children with dyslexia may take longer to learn the letters of the alphabet and how they are pronounced. There may be problems remembering the days of the week, months of the year, colors, and some arithmetic tables.
The child may seem clumsier than their peers. Catching a ball may be difficult. Poorer eye-hand coordination may be a symptom of other similar neurological conditions, including dyspraxia
Left and right
The child may confuse “left” and “right.”
They may reverse numbers and letters without realizing.
Some children with dyslexia might not follow a pattern of progression seen in other children. They may learn how to spell a word and completely forget the next day.
If a word has more than two syllables, phonological processing becomes much more challenging. For example, with the word “unfortunately” a person with dyslexia may be able to process the sounds “un” and “ly,” but not the ones in between.
Children with dyslexia commonly find it hard to concentrate. Many adults with dyslexia say this is because, after a few minutes of non-stop struggling, the child is mentally exhausted. A higher number of children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared with the rest of the population.
When a person with dyslexia expresses a sequence of ideas, they may seem illogical or unconnected.
Dyslexia can be broken down into different subtypes, but there is no official list of dyslexia types because they can be classified in different ways.
However, the following categories are sometimes used:
The person has difficulty breaking down words into smaller units, making it hard to match sounds with their written form. This is also known as dysphonetic dyslexia or auditory dyslexia.
The person cannot recognize a word by sight, making words hard to remember and learn. This is sometimes called dyseidectic dyslexia or visual dyslexia.
Rapid naming deficit:
The person cannot quickly name a letter or number when they see it.
Double deficit dyslexia:
The person finds it hard to isolate sounds also to name letters and numbers.
The person has an unusual visual experience when looking at words, although this can overlap with surface dyslexia. Sometimes people refer to “directional dyslexia,” meaning it is difficult to tell left from right. This is a common feature of dyslexia, but it is not a type.
If a person has difficulty with math learning, the correct term for this is dyscalculia. It is not dyslexia.
Stage of Development
|Teenage years and Adulthood||
Types of Reading Disabilities
Difficulty decording or assembling words based on their sounds. Note that phonemic awareness is not a reading deficit per se since it involves only sounds and not letters.
Speed Naming Deficit:
Slow reading: poor use of sight. A sight word is a word that is instantly recognized by the reader: is not sounded out, and requires almost no effort to understand.
Poor understanding of what was just read.
Subtypes of Dyslexia
By Sensory System
Auditory Dyslexia involves difficulty processing sounds of letters or groups of letters. Multiple sounds may be fused as a singular sound. For Examples the word ‘back’ will be heard as asingle sound rather than something made up of the sounds /b/ – /aa/ – /ck/. Single syllable words are especially prone to this problem
Visual dyslexia is defined as reading difficulty resulting from vision related problems. Though the term is a misnormer, visual problems can definitely lead to reading and learning problems.
Attentional Dyslexia in which children identify letters correctly, but the letters jump between words on the page. “kind wing” would be read as “wind king”. The substitutions are not caused by an inability letters or convert them to sounds, but instead result from the migration of letters between words-the first letters of one word switches place with the first letter of another word.
Phonological dyslexia is extreme difficulty reading that is a result of phonological impairment, meaning the ability to manipulate the basic sounds of language. The individual sounds of language become ‘sticky’, unable to be broken apart and manipulated easily.
A type of dyslexia characterised by difficulty with whole word recognition and spelling, especially when the words have irregular spelling sound correspondences”.
Deep dyslexia is an acquired form of dyslexia, meaning it does not typically result from genetic, hereditary (developmental) cause. It represents a loss of existing capacity to read, often because of head trauma or stroke that affects the left side of the brain. It is distinguished by two things:semantic errors and difficulty reading non-words.
By Time of Onset:
Developmental dyslexia is not so much a type of dyslexia, it is dyslexia. In fact our definition of it would be the same as our definition of dyslexia generly: Extreme difficulty reading caused by a hereditary, brain based, Phonologic disability. So why do people use the term instead of just saying dyslexia? The simple answer is they are trying to be more specific, distinguishing ‘regular’ dyslexia from the other types of dyslexia. In particular, distinguishuing it from acquired forms of dyslexia that result from stroke or head trauma for example, which often present very differently. For more on developmental dyslexia.
This type results from trauma or injury to that part of the brain that controls reading and writing. Late in life this can be the result of a tumor or stroke.
Other Dyslexia Types:
Directional dyslexia is distinguished by left-right confusion and tendency to become disoriented or lost. The term is also occasionally used to mean confusion with letters such as P and b or d and b, where there is confusion over the ‘direction’ of the letter. Generally, problems with direction are a symptom of dyslexia more than a sub type. Not all dyslexics have this problem.
Math Dyslexia (Dyscalculia)
Math dyslexia or dyscalculia is not, in fact, a type of dyslexia, but we included it here because the term is frequently used. According to the U.S National Center for Learning Disabilities, math dyslexia, or dyscalculia, refers to wide range of lifelong learning disabilities involving math, varies from person to person and affects people differently at different stages of life.
As with reading, when basic math skills are not mastered early, more advanced math becomes extremely difficult. Approximately half of people with dyslexia also have dyscalculia, though far less research has been conducted regarding testing, assessment and remediation.